Distribution and human health hazard appraisal with special reference to chromium in soils from Peenya industrial area, Bengaluru City, South India

Twelve soil samples during July-2016 were taken from Peenya industrial sites at different depth viz., 0-Hft., 1-3 ft., and 3-5 ft. heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr+3, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sr, V, and Zn) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Contamination Factor, Enrichment Factor, Pollution Index, Modified Pollution Index, indices of pollution, Toxic Unit (TU), Hazard Quotient (HQ), Hazard Index (HI), Total Hazard Index (THI), Cancer Risk (CR), and Lifetime Cancer Risk (LCR) were used to evaluate the environmental and potential health hazard risks of human beings. Single pollution indices showed that the study site was contaminated with chromium concentration. Nemerow pollution index showed that majority of soil samples were in the very high level of pollution. THI values showing <1 indicating that there were non-carcinogenic risks for children and less risk for adults. Based on LCR for children, 100% of soil samples were at high risk. LCR for Cr+3 concentrations of the soils were found higher than the threshold value of 1.00E-04, indicating a significant carcinogenic risk. This study can be used as a reference point to develop future long-term risk assessment plans on the probable movement of heavy metals in urban soils to human beings.

Gunnam Venkata Ratnalu, Ratnakar Dhakate, Shekhar More (2021) Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering

https://doi.org/10.1007/s40201-021-00757-z external link