Geochemical evaluation of groundwater and suitability for irrigation purpose in an agricultural region of South India

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the geochemical processes controlling the groundwater chemistry and also to assess the groundwater quality suitability criteria for irrigation purposes in an agricultural region of Telangana. A total of 100 groundwater samples were collected and estimated for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), bicarbonate (HCO), chloride (Cl), sulfate (SO42−), nitrate (NO3), and fluoride (F). The groundwater was characterized by mostly alkaline conditions with a dominance of Na+ and HCO−3 ions, indicating the prevailing conditions of weathering and dissolution of silicate minerals. The various geochemical signatures such as Na+ vs Cl, Ca2+ + Mg2+ vs HCO−3, the saturation indices with respect to calcite, halite, and gypsum suggest obviously the dominant conditions of carbonate weathering associated with the reverse ion exchange and evaporation processes as the geogenic factors. The linear trend of TDS vs NO−3 + Cl/HCO−3 clearly specifies the influence of non-geogenic sources on the aquifer system. These are the important contributors to the variation in the groundwater chemistry. However, the impact of the geogenic source is masking the influence of the anthropogenic source in some areas of the present study region.

Citation: Sakram Gugulothu, N. Subbarao, Rashmirekha Das, Ratnakar Dhakate (2022), Applied Water Science, 12:142