Seasonal variations in hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater were assessed from an intensive agricultural region to identify contaminants of concern that are a potential risk to human health. A total of 116 groundwater samples were collected grid-wise from an intensive agricultural region of confined Wanaparthy watershed to evaluate seasonal variations in hydrogeochemical processes of dissolved ions, nitrate health risk assessment and water quality during pre-monsoon (PRM) and post-monsoon (POM) seasons. Piper diagram for water-types shows PRM; Na-Cl type (70.68%) while POM; Ca-Mg-Cl type (39.66%) and Ca-HCO3 type (31.03%). Spatial distribution map shows samples with higher and above permissible limits are found at/near to adjoining to higher-order streams and streams origin. As per the water quality index (WQI), 36.21% (PRM) and 60.34% (POM) fall in poor to unfit for drinking class. Hazard quotient (HQ) values of nitrate reach as high as for infants 1.31E + 01, children 1.23E + 01 and adults 4.68E + 00 respectively. Thus, HQ>1 with 68.97% of infants and 72.41% of children are in danger for non-carcinogenic ingestion of nitrate contaminated groundwater than in adults.
Figure: Seasonal variation in groundwater quality and spatial distribution with respect to Water Quality Index (WQI) in Wanaparthy watershed for PRM and POM- monsoon season
Suantak Paolalsiam Vaiphei, Rama Mohan Kurakalva, : Hydrochemical characteristics and nitrate health risk assessment of groundwater through seasonal variations from an intensive agricultural region of upper Krishna River basin, Telangana, India. (2021) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety; doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112073.